This book bridges three different fields: nanoscience, bioscience, and environmental sciences. It starts with fundamental electrostatics at interfaces and includes a detailed description of fundamental theories dealing with electrical double layers around a charged particle, electrokinetics, and electrical double layer interaction between charged particles. The stated fundamentals are provided as the underpinnings of sections two, three, and four, which address electrokinetic phenomena that occur in nanoscience, bioscience, and environmental science. Applications in nanomaterials, fuel cells, electronic materials, biomaterials, stems cells, microbiology, water purificiaion, and humic substances are discussed.
PREFACE xi CONTRIBUTORS xiii PART I FUNDAMENTALS 1 1 Potential and Charge of a Hard Particle and a Soft Particle 3 Hiroyuki Ohshima 2 Electrostatic Interaction between Two Colloidal Particles 17 Hiroyuki Ohshima 3 The Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) Theory of Colloid Stability 27 Hiroyuki Ohshima 4 Electrophoretic Mobility of Charged Particles 35 Hiroyuki Ohshima 5 Electrophoretic Mobility of Gold Nanoparticles 51 Kimiko Makino and Hiroyuki Ohshima 6 Electrophoresis of Soft Particles in a Confined Space 61 Li-Hsien Yeh and Jyh-Ping Hsu 7 Surface Conductivity 95 Stanislav S. Dukhin, Ralf Zimmermann, and Carsten Werner 8 Computer Simulations of Charged Colloids 127 1. Mesoscopic Modeling Yasuya Nakayama, Kang Kim, and Ryoichi Yamamoto 9 Computer Simulations of Charged Colloids 141 2. Electrophoresis and Sedimentation Kang Kim, Yasuya Nakayama, and Ryoichi Yamamoto 10 Electrostatic and Steric Stabilization of Colloidal Dispersions 153 Tharwat Tadros 11 Aggregation Kinetics of Colloidal Particles 173 Motoyoshi Kobayashi 12 Electroacoustic Theories and Measurement Techniques 193 Shin-Ichi Takeda 13 Colloid Vibration Potential and Ion Vibration Potential in Surfactant Solutions 209 Youichi Takata and Hiroyuki Ohshima 14 Interfacial Tension of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions: Ion-Free Layer 223 Youichi Takata and Hiroyuki Ohshima PART II APPLICATIONS IN NANO- AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 241 15 Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Electrode Polarization and Its Scaling 243 Anatoli Serghei, Joshua R. Sangoro, and Friedrich Kremer 16 Layer-by-Layer Assembly on Stimuli-Responsive Microgels 275 John Erik Wong and Walter Richtering 17 Dynamics of Polymers and Polyelectrolytes at Colloidal Interface and Subsequent Flocculation 299 Yasuhisa Adachi 18 Colloidal Particle Processing Using Heterocoagulation 315 Hiroshi Sasaki, Chiharu Tokoro, and Hiroshi Hayashi 19 Electrokinetic Coupling in Colloidal Arrays Formed under AC Electric Fields 331 Satoshi Nishimura 20 Size Distribution Measurements of Fine Particles Using Their Pearl Chain Formations under a DC Electric Field 351 Akira Otsuki, Gjergi Dodbiba, and Toyohisa Fujita 21 Analysis of Functional Groups at Buried Liquid/Solid Interfaces Utilizing Polarization Modulation Infrared External Reflection Spectroscopy 361 Hiroharu Yui 22 Fabrication of Liquid Crystal Displays Containing Capped Nanoparticles and Their Electro-optic Properties 373 Yukihide Shiraishi, Naoto Nishida, and Naoki Toshima 23 Fabrication of Ordered Nanopattern Structures Using Two-Dimensional Colloidal Monolayers 391 Takeshi Kawai 24 Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Other Carbon Nanomaterials 407 Kiyofumi Yamagiwa and Jun Kuwano 25 Oxide Cathode Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells 423 Morihiro Saito and Jun Kuwano 26 Dynamics and Structure of Water Nanotube Clusters Confined to Nanoporous Molecular Crystals 441 Makoto Tadokoro 27 Surface Electrochemistry of Electrospun Nanofi bers 469 Hidetoshi Matsumoto and Akihiko Tanioka 28 Shave-Off Profiling as a Nanoscale 3-D Element Imaging Technique 481 Masashi Nojima 29 Interfacial Charge Storage of Manganese Oxide Electrodes for Electrochemical Capacitors 491 Shinichi Komaba, Naoaki Yabuuchi, and Tomoya Tsuchikawa 30 Surface Functionalization of Diamond Electrodes 509 Takeshi Kondo 31 Quantum Electrochemical Study of Benzene Derivatives 527 1. Electronic Structure and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Aspirin and Paracetamol Kazunaka Endo 32 Quantum Electrochemical Study of Benzene Derivatives 541 2. Analysis of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectra of Electrochemically Prepared Polyaniline by DFT Calculations Using Model Molecules Kazunaka Endo 33 Synthesis and Solution Properties of Fluorocarbon-Hydrocarbon Hybrid Surfactants 555 Yukishige Kondo 34 Electrochemical Dynamic Control of Self-Assemblies Formed by Redox-Active Surfactants 567 Koji Tsuchiya, Hirofumi Yajima, Hideki Sakai, and Masahiko Abe 35 Photoinduced Manipulation of Self-Organized Nanostructure of Block Copolymers 583 Kunihiko Okano and Takashi Yamashita 36 Applications of Electrical Phenomena in Membranes and Membrane Separation Processes 599 Kazuho Nakamura PART III APPLICATIONS IN BIOSCIENCES 617 37 Dielectric Dispersion in Colloidal Systems: Applications in the Biological Sciences 619 Maria Luisa Jimenez, Silvia Ahualli, Raul A. Rica, and Angel V. Delgado 38 Electrokinetic Methods in Biological Interfaces: Possibilities and Limitations 645 Angel V. Delgado, Julian Lopez-Viota, and Fernando Gonzalez-Caballero 39 Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Fusion 673 Shinpei Ohki and Klaus Arnold 40 Drug Delivery System 709 Kimiko Makino 41 On-Chip Cell Electrophoresis and Evaluating Cellular Functions 725 Takanori Akagi and Takanori Ichiki 42 Surface Characteristics and Attachment Behaviors of Bacterial Cells 737 Hisao Morisaki 43 Design and Fabrication of Sterically Stabilized Liposomes Dispersed in Aqueous Solutions by Utilizing Electrostatic Interactions for Use in Biomedical Applications 755 Katsumi Uchida and Hirofumi Yajima 44 Cell Regulation through Membrane Rafts/Caveolae 767 Yohei Saito, Toshiyuki Owaki, and Fumio Fukai 45 Oxidoreductases: Asymmetric Reduction Using Photosynthetic Organisms 783 Tetsuo Takemura and Kaoru Nakamura 46 Surface Organization of Poly (Ethylene Glycol) (PEG)-Based Block Copolymers for Biomedical Applications 801 Hidenori Otsuka 47 PEGylated Nanoparticles for Biological and Pharmaceutical Applications 815 Hidenori Otsuka INDEX 839