An introductory textbook to biological oceanography describing the major marine environments and the marine organisms living in pelagic and benthic habitats. Emphasis is placed on biological production and food chains and their geographical variation according to dffferent physical and chemical regimes.The exploitation and conservation of marine resources are considered. There are sections on both fisheries oceanography and benthic habitats such as coral reefs. Many in situ photographs of planktonic organisms have been incorporated together with in situ observations of plankton behaviour. Overall the book presents a combination of descriptive material and theoretical concepts. Numerous questions and worked examples are provided throughout the text guiding the student in obtaining a thorough understanding and practical working experience of ecological concepts.
Special properties affecting life in the sea. Classifications of marine environments and marine organisms. Basic ecological terms and concepts. The historical development of biological oceanography. Summary of chapter 1. The Abiotic Environment. Solar radiation. Temperature. Salinity. Density. Pressure. Surface currents. Summary of chapter 2. Phytoplankton and Primary Production. Systematic treatment. Photosynthesis and primary production. Radiation and photosynthesis. The effect of nutrients on growth rate. Physical controls of primary production. Global phytoplankton productivity. Summary of chapter 3. Zooplankton. Collection methods. Holoplankton: systematics and biology. Meroplankton. Vertical distribution. Diel vertical migration Seasonal vertical migrations. Zoogeography of the holoplankton. Summary of chapter4. Energy Flow and Mineral Cycling. Foodchains and energy transfer. Food webs. Measuring secondary production. A comparison of marine and terrestrial production. Mineral cycles. Summary of chapter 5. Nekton and Fisheries Oceanography. Nektonic crustacea. Nektonic cephalopods. Marine reptiles. Marine mammals. Seabirds. Marine fish. Fisheries and fisheries oceanography. Mariculture. Summary of chapter 6. Benthos. Benthic plants. Benthic animals. Determinants of community structure. Summary of chapter 7. Benthic Communities. Intertidal environments. Rocky intertidal shores. Kelp forests. Sand beaches. Estuaries. Coral reefs. Manogrove swamps. Deep-sea ecology. Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps.